Air Pollution and Particulate Matter in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area, India


  • Joy Karmakar Serampore College, Hooghly, India


Particulate Matter, Metropolitan Area, Kolkata, NAAQS, Air Pollution


A recent report from the US-based Health Effects Institute (HEI) has identified Delhi and Kolkata as the two most polluted cities, in terms of exposure to hazardous fine particulate matter (PM2.5). In order to tackle this issue, regulatory measures were implemented in Kolkata in 2018 to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). This study aims to analyze the levels of PM2.5 in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) from 2021 to 2023. The findings indicate that the main sources of PM2.5 are transportation, households, and industries, although their contributions vary across the metropolitan area. The mean and median concentrations of PM2.5 are highest in Kolkata and its adjacent areas, including Bidhannagore and New Town Kolkata. Additionally, it has been observed that PM2.5 levels remain high during both winter and summer seasons.