Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research (JSIR) <p style="text-align: justify;">This oldest journal of NISCAIR (started in1942) carries comprehensive reviews in different fields of science &amp; technology (S&amp;T), including industry, original articles, short communications and case studies, on various facets of industrial development, industrial research, technology management, technology forecasting, instrumentation and analytical techniques, specially of direct relevance to industrial entrepreneurs, debates on key industrial issues, editorials/technical commentaries, reports on S&amp;T conferences, extensive book reviews and various industry related announcements.It covers all facets of industrial development.<strong> Impact Factor of JSIR is 0.7 (JCR 2023).</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instructions to Author Guidelines</a></strong></p> en-US (Dr Narendra Kumar Sahoo) (Digital Information Resources Division) Wed, 10 Jul 2024 19:49:12 +0530 OJS 60 Safety Climate and Its Relationship with Workers' Risk Perceptions and Risk Tolerances toward the Acceptance of Risk Management <p>Risk management is a systematic approach of dealing with the inherent uncertainty of risks in a deliberate manner. Workers' risk perception and risk tolerance are two elements that may impact how a firm handles risk and how secure it is, depending on how comparable their risk perceptions and tolerances are. There exists a disparity between the phase of evaluating operational hazards and the phase of comprehending them. The role of workers towards risk management remains limited. Hence, the objective of this study is to ascertain the correlation between the perception of risk and the willingness to take risks, in connection to the workers' safety environment in refinery plants. An analysis utilising the Partial Least Squares-SEM model was performed on the data obtained from a valid research questionnaire. Results illustrate that risk perception of employees and their level of readiness to accept risks (tolerance) are remarkably impacted by the safety climate. Moreover, it explained how an individual's viewpoint on risk perception significantly impacts their willingness to embrace risk. This study increases employee awareness, which promotes a safety culture and enhances understanding of the company's risk management strategies. As a result, there will be a notable decline in occurrences pertaining to safety in general.</p> Ali Mohammad Saedi, Zaidi Isa, Rubayah Yakob, Hendon Redzuan, Mohd Hafizuddin Syah B Abdullah Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research (JSIR) Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0530 A Bibliometric Analysis of Research on Sustainable Development Goals by the G20 Countries <p>United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and their targets are highly interconnected and require international collaboration. In this context, the G20 organization of 20 countries/units, founded in 1999 holds an important position being an important political and economic platform for addressing various developmental concerns. With 75% of global population, the Group Nations accounts for 85% of the global GDP and about 75% of the global trade. Considering the strength, resources and representation of these countries, they hold the major part of the responsibility towards achieving the SDGs. Scientific and technological research is a major requirement for achieving the SDGs. Given that the G20 has about 88.8% of the world’s researchers, 93.2% of research spending and produce about 90.6% of scientific publications, it would be interesting to analyse what quantum of this research is focused on achieving the SDGs. However, there are no existing studies on this aspect. This study, therefore, attempts to bridge this research gap by presenting a quantitative analysis of research on SDGs by the G20 member countries. Important patterns are identified, which can be useful for different policy perspectives.</p> Aakash Singh, Anurag Kanaujia, Vivek Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research (JSIR) Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Financial System Development and Environmental Quality: A System-GMM Dynamic Panel Analysis <p>The connection between financial development and carbon emissions is intricate, considering both theoretical frameworks and empirical evidence. Consequently, this study seeks to reassess the relationship between these variables in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries from 2010 to 2020, employing a dynamic GMM approach. Findings affirm the presence of a nonlinear relationship between financial development and environmental pollution. They specifically indicate that banking industry and financial markets have a twofold influence on environmental quality, encompassing both detrimental and beneficial outcomes. Results indicate that a more developed financial system decreases pollution emissions in GCC countries. The results hold noteworthy policy implications for GCC countries as they work towards achieving their goals related to the establishment of a low-carbon economy.</p> Wafa Ghardallou, Layla Abaalkhail Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research (JSIR) Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of Fe Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles for Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Ciprofloxacin <p>The present study focused on the photo catalytic degradation of Ciprofloxacin (CP) using ultrasonically synthesized TiO<sub>2</sub> and Fe-doped TiO<sub>2</sub> (1 wt%) nanoparticles under sunlight. The synthesized nanoparticles were extensively characterized using XRD, FTIR, FESEM and EDS techniques. XRD analysis revealed that Fe<sup>+3</sup> ions were successfully incorporated into TiO<sub>2</sub>, and both TiO<sub>2</sub> and Fe-doped TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles contained only anatase phase. The average crystallite size of synthesized nanoparticles was estimated to be in the range of 4-6 nm. The EDS analysis has confirmed the existence of Fe in the sample of Fe-doped TiO<sub>2</sub>. The CP degradation study was performed and compared using synthesized nanoparticles. The optimized value of the degradation was investigated by varying experimental parameters, namely, irradiation time, catalyst dosage, initial CP concentration, and pH. Fe-doped TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles outperformed compared to pure TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles for CP degradation. The maximum CP degradation was achieved around 87% at a catalyst dosage of 30 mg, initial CP concentration of 10 ppm, pH of 5, and irradiation time of 150 minutes.</p> Dipak Giram, Tanvi Shrivastava, Arijit Das Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research (JSIR) Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0530 A Hybrid PSO Based Algorithm for Solving the Machine-Part Cell Formation Problem <p>Cellular Manufacturing (CM), an approach primarily based on the concept of Group Technology (GT), is one of the recent trends that help the manufacturing industry in reducing manufacturing cost and increasing productivity while maintaining quality. The idea of manufacturing parts in dedicated cells is beneficial as it results in increased manufacturing quality and reduced lead times. However, implementation of such a system in a real-life situation is always a challenging task. To overcome this challenge, several techniques, including AI-based approaches, have been developed over the years and regularly reported in literature. A very small portion of these approaches are utilizing Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in standard or hybrid form, whereas a larger chunk is either GA-based or utilizing other heuristics. To test the effectiveness of PSO while handling the Machine-Part Cell Formation (MPCF) problem in a CM environment, initially a standard PSO is developed during this research. Later, the same is hybridized with a Local Search Heuristic (LSH). The results of both standard and hybrid PSOs, developed during this research, are compared with the corresponding GA based methodologies, already available in literature. Computational results show that the GA based approaches have been outperformed both in terms of accuracy and computational effort. Further comparison of the results generated by the Hybrid PSO (HPSO) with several other techniques also shows that HPSO is either more or, in few cases, equally effective.</p> Adnan Tariq, Waqas Javaid, Waseem Shahzad, Muhammad Yasir, Shahid Iqbal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research (JSIR) Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Optimizing Strategic Placement of Railroad Accident Relief Equipment: A Simulation-Based Decision Tool <p align="justify">This study presents a simulation based method for the comparative evaluation of solutions for location of relief equipment on railway networks—a domain that has been notably neglected in scholarly exploration. To fill this gap a comprehensive simulation framework is introduced that utilizes mathematical modelling and optimization techniques to evaluate the performance of the location solution in different real time circumstances over a long-time horizon. This transportation model considers the demand-supply problem for each instance of accident on a railway network. The model integrates constraints mirroring the practical and operational restrictions associated with moving relief equipment within the network. Application of this transportation model is demonstrated with historical data of accidents and the demand of equipment during each scenario, presenting a practical case study to validate the proposed methodology. Computational experiments are conducted to compare three existing location solutions available in the literature. These location solutions are critically examined to assess their efficacy in addressing the challenges of relief facility placement within a railway network along with analysis of their strengths and weaknesses. It is noted that there is approximately 1.5% less cost of attention and 60% less penalty in the case of the solution obtained through multi-objective problem when compared with two other solutions obtained through ‘Set- Covering Model’ and ‘Existing locations’ adopted by the railways considered in the study. By using real-life scenarios, advanced simulation techniques, and comparative analysis of existing solutions, this work not only addresses the current gap in academic research but also sets the stage for further advancements in the optimization of relief operations within complex railway networks.</p> Gyanesh Tripathi, Lakshay Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research (JSIR) Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Rigorous Specification of Vector Timestamp Based Load Sharing Mechanism for Distributed Systems <p>Distributed systems are autonomous computer nodes or sites that are interconnected by a communication network. These sites function independently without a shared memory or global clock, communicating through message exchanges. Any incoming job can be allocated to any of these independent sites within the system. This leads to a non-uniform distribution of load where some sites become highly loaded while others remain lightly loaded or idle. This scenario leads to poor utilization of resources, heightened response time and impaired system performance. This paper presents the formal specification of a load balancing protocol for distributed systems which is based on vector time-stamping of messages using the vector clock at a site. In order to add fairness to the load sharing mechanism, the request for unburdening the heavily laden site is catered to first whose request message has the least vector timestamp from among the request messages present in the request acquisition queue of the lightly loaded site. Formal methods utilise mathematical techniques to methodically detect and correct errors in the development of software in its initial phases. Event-B is a formal method used to create models of proposed algorithms. The approach used is event-driven, employing set-theoretic principles to construct models of distributed system protocols. The procedure involves creating and satisfying proof obligations to validate the correctness of a model. The article presents a rigorous analysis of the vector clock mechanism in distributed systems as well as a load distribution system which uses vector timestamped messages as the underlying message exchange protocol using Event-B.</p> Pooja Yadav, Raghuraj Suryavanshi, Divakar Yadav Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research (JSIR) Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Impact of RoPP in Wavelength Conversion Inducing Nonlinearity and All-Optical 3R Regeneration for DWDM Networks <p>The effect of Rotation of Plane of Polarization (RoPP) on wavelength conversion-induced nonlinearity and all-optical 3R regeneration has attracted significant attention in the quickly changing field of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) networks, where high-capacity data transmission is critical. This paper explores the complex interactions among RoPP, wavelength conversion, and 3R regeneration, focusing in particular on modeling and assessing the Bit-Error-Rate (BER) and Quality-factor (Q) variations under different polarization rotational angles. In nonlinear media, the 1545 nm Gaussian probe signal interacts with the 1554 nm CW (Continuous Wave) pump signal to cause Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM), which is used to convert wavelengths using nonlinear polarization rotation. Our study presents a theoretical framework that includes RoPP modulation, Variable Optical Attenuators (VOAs), Highly Nonlinear Fiber (HNLF), Clock, and Travelling Wave SOA (TWSOA) as major components to support the possibility of using polarization manipulation to reduce nonlinear impairments and improve network performance as a whole. Using TWSOA integrated 3R regeneration, the results show that the highest/lowest realized quality factor is 28.89/24.54 and the lowest/highest value of Log of (BER) is −179.35/−132.64. It finds out that 3R regeneration improves quality factor by more than 19 at a 90-degree rotational angle, and as a result, BER is significantly decreased. Findings confirm symmetry on both sides with reference to orthogonal polarization. The results of this study open new directions for the development of novel approaches to strategically manipulate the polarization state of light in order to optimize DWDM network performance and overcome the problems of nonlinearities and signal degradation in high-capacity optical communication systems.</p> Parashuram, Chakresh Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research (JSIR) Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Protease from a Local Bacillus Strain Adapted to Extreme Temperatures in Southern Iraq <p>Bacteria, with their amenability to genetic manipulation and cultivation, represent a favored source of protease enzymes. This study aims to isolate and purify protease from a local <em>Bacillus</em> strain in southern Iraq, known for its resilience to extreme heat. In August 2022, soil samples were collected from Wasit Province, Iraq, and plated on a casein-hydrolyzed medium. <em>Bacillus</em> strains were selected based on microscopic and colony characteristics, with the most active isolate identified as <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> through morphological assessment and 16S rRNA sequencing. Protease production occurred through submerged fermentation, yielding a crude enzyme with enzymatic and specific activities of 241.3 U/mL and 613.3 U/mg, respectively. Partial purification with chilled acetone resulted in an enzyme with enzymatic and specific activities of 935.0 U/mL and 745.0 U/mg, respectively. Further DEAE chromatographic purification showed a single peak of protease activity with increasing sodium chloride ionic strength. The enzyme's specific activity reached 2491.8 U/mg, with a recovery rate of nearly 90%. Subsequent gel column filtration via 1.5 × 60 cm Sephadex G-100 displayed a single peak of protease activity and increased specific activity (4264.10 U/mg) with a 73% recovery rate. Molecular weight determination using Sephadex G-100 column indicated a size of 29.3 kDa for the <em>B. subtilis</em> protease. Regarding thermal stability, the enzyme demonstrated initial stability at 60°C, but prolonged exposure reduced activity. In contrast, exposure to 70°C and 80°C resulted in rapid declines in enzymatic activity. This study highlights the isolation and purification of a robust protease enzyme from a local <em>Bacillus</em> strain, underscoring its potential significance in various industrial applications.</p> Hyder Najy Alzobaidy, Ghasan M Hasan, Suhad K R Al-Magsoosi, Jasim M Awda Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research (JSIR) Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Cooking Quality, Nutritional Composition and Textural Properties of Noodles Functionalised using Rheum ribes Plant Powder <p>This research aimed to explore the potential of incorporating <em>Rheum ribes</em> L. plant as an ingredient in noodle production to enhance nutritional properties. <em>Rheum ribes</em> powder was added to noodle formulation at 6 different ratios (0%-control, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 15%) according to the principle of replacing with wheat flour. While using <em>Rheum ribes</em> in the formulation reduced moisture amount of noodle, it increased ash, protein and fat contents. The inclusion of <em>Rheum ribes</em> resulted in elevated levels of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the noodles, accompanied by a decrease in their phytic acid contents. Depending on increase in the addition ratio of <em>Rheum ribes</em> powder, the cooking time, volume and weight increase values decreased, while the cooking loss and total organic matter values increased. The incorporation of <em>Rheum ribes</em> had a notable impact on the textural characteristics of the samples. As a result of the sensory analysis, the noodle sample with 12% <em>Rheum ribes</em> powder additive received the highest score in terms of overall acceptability, while the sample with 15% <em>Rheum ribes</em> powder additive received the lowest score. However, the panelists also stated that they could consume all the noodles prepared with <em>Rheum ribes</em> powder. All these findings showed that adding up to 12% <em>Rheum ribes</em> powder to the formulation can be used to improve most quality characteristics of noodles.</p> Mehmet Köten, Ali Gümüş, Ayşe Nur Hanbay Şentürk, Harun Akif Şentürk, Hatice Filiz Bayraktar, Mesut Uçkan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research (JSIR) Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0530