Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) <p style="text-align: justify;">“Traditional knowledge" is employed to mean knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional life-styles; the wisdom developed over many generations of holistic traditional scientific utilization of the lands, natural resources, and environment. It is generally passed down by word of mouth, from generation to generation and is, for the most part, undocumented. Traditional knowledge is valid and necessary, and awaits its currently relevant wider application for human benefit. National Institute of Science Communication and Policy Research (erstwhile NISCAIR), CSIR felt a need to document the recent developments and the information bygone in this area in the form of an interdisciplinary periodical, the Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK). IJTK carries original research papers, review articles, short communications, etc. concerned with the observation and experimental investigation of the biological activities of the materials from plants, animals and minerals, used in the traditional health-care systems such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Yoga, Unani, Naturopathy, Homoeopathy, Folk-remedies, etc. As validation of indigenous claims it covers Ethno-biology, Ethno-medicine, Ethno-pharmacology, Ethno-pharmacognosy &amp; Clinical Studies on efficacy. Besides, the journal will also welcome interdisciplinary papers on traditional uses (non-medicinal) of Indian raw materials of plant, animal and mineral origin and development of appropriate technologies for community benefit with specific interest to the rural areas. <strong>Impact Factor of IJTK is 0.8 (JCR 2022). CODEN: IJTKB7.</strong></p> CSIR-National Institue of Science Communication and Policy Research en-US Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 0972-5938 Controlled germination for cooking quality and nutritional enhancement of underutilised little millets <p>Little millet (<em>Panicum sumatrense</em>) is one of the underutilised indigenous nutricereals due to coarse nature and drudgery associated with processing. Minimal processing such as germination could convert it into edible form. The present study revealed that 24 h germinated little millets were better source of vitamin C (5.11 mg/100 g) and total soluble solids (2.33%) with substantial α-amylase activity (1.34 μg/100 g), milling yield (71.03%) and overall acceptability (8.73) for cooked grains compared to non-germinated and germinated ones for 12, 18, 36, 42 and 48 h. Germination enhanced hydration, swelling capacities by 25.71, 36.17% respectively and decreased bulk density, tapped density of little millets by 5.06, 5.88% respectively due to breakdown of complex components into simpler ones by hydrolytic enzymes. Consequently, germination enhanced water uptake ratio, elongation ratio, volume expansion ratio of cooked little millets by 19.35, 5.60, 39.51% respectively and decreased cooking time, gelatinisation temperature, solid content by 31.95, 20.26, 20.03% respectively. Further, it improved protein, fiber, total mineral contents by 6.92, 26.90, 130.77%, respectively and reduced moisture, fat, energy, reducing sugar contents by 5.79, 65.80, 5.74, 6.07% respectively due to activation of metabolic machineries which promoted synthesis and release of bound constituents by reducing antinutrients. These germinated little millets with better cooking quality, nutritional and sensory profile can be consumed by obese and diabetic people or utilised as functional ingredients for formulation of low bulk weaning and complementary mixes or nourishing convenience foods.</p> Neeharika B Jessie Suneetha W Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 305 315 10.56042/ijtk.v23i4.4135 Perceptions and linkage of indigenous community in conservation of sacred natural sites in Assam, Northeast India <p>Sacred natural sites are one of the most valuable ecosystems preserving the cultural integrity of different communities worldwide. Out of different sacred natural sites, sacred groves have acquired more importance due to spiritual theories and religious ethics. There are many sacred groves with diverse historical importance which are not yet been studied. The current study aimed to report the documentation and prominence established by the local community for the conservation of sacred groves in Assam during 2015 to 2017. Sacred groves were inventoried across the state, wherein sacred plants, people's perceptions, and anthropogenic disturbances were studied. Assam is a culturally rich state, and various ethnic communities conserved a total of 282 sacred groves covering an area of 672.48 ha, distributed within 23 AMSL to 955 AMSL. 83 tree species belonging to 68 genera and 38 families were listed, out of which 15 sacred trees were protected in the vicinity of the sacred groves. We observed a significant relationship between the cultural belief system and anthropogenic disturbances in the sacred groves, χ<sup>2</sup> (1, N= 768) =50.032, p&lt;0.001. The record on the degree of anthropogenic disturbances revealed 51% of wood collection from sacred groves, followed by browsing/grazing activities (38%) and fire frequency of 11%. The result of our study has widened the perception of the need to conserve the sacred groves not merely for aesthetic but also for community implications intended for ecological significance.</p> Shilpa Baidya Ashalata Devi Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 316 323 10.56042/ijtk.v23i4.199 Processing technologies of various ethnic fish products consumed in Asian countries: a review <p>Since time immemorial, various communities across different countries have developed their own techniques of preparing traditional fermented ethnic fish products either by drying, smoking, or fermenting them together, or by combining the processes of drying, smoking, and fermentation. Fermentation is a common food preservation technique that improves safety of food, its shelf life, mouth feel, aroma, palatability and nutritional qualities. Fermented foods are those foods that are prepared through the regulated escalation of microbes and the enzymatic alteration of dietary components. Fermented fish is produced and consumed throughout the world, and it is an integral feature of many cuisines. It is also an affluent resource of microorganisms as well as a major industry in several countries of the world. These fish items are produced using an environment friendly preservation technology and natural packaging. As a result, food preservation technology becomes low-cost and accessible to the economically weaker section, and it also addresses the issues of food deterioration and food-borne infections. This review primarily aims to underline the process technology of various fermented fish products of some Asian countries and their preparation procedures. In addition, it also highlights the biochemical, microbial, nutritional quality and ethno-medical properties of various fermented fish products.</p> Kapil Deb Nath Deepayan Roy Sankar Chandra Deka Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 324 335 10.56042/ijtk.v23i4.10316 Nutritional composition, antioxidant activity, minerals and anti-nutritional factors of indigenous leafy vegetables of eastern India <p>The underutilized leafy vegetables indigenous to eastern India constitute an integral part of food and nutrition of local population. In the current study, 22 indigenous species of leafy vegetables eaten by local people of eastern India were characterized by their nutritional and antioxidant profile. Most of these leafy vegetables showed great nutritional potential being rich in carotenoids (11.76±2.601 to 76.24±4.80 mg/100 g), ascorbic acid (3.01±0.241 to 156.92±4.37 mg/100 g), crude fiber (0.74±0.019 to 4.98±0.06%) and many essential minerals such as calcium (52.71±1.8 to 1114.2±9.1 mg/100 g), magnesium (28.87±4.70 to 566.0±4.1 mg/100 g), potassium (151.4±9.2 to 1465.38±4.0 mg/100 g), phosphorus (5.64±0.8 to 174.4±1.9 mg/100 g), iron (1.46±0.5 to 52.8±1.3 mg/100 g), zinc (0.17±0.2 to 5.91±0.4 mg/100 g), copper (0.11±0.06 to 1.4±0.1 mg/100 g) and manganese (0.35±0.2 to 80.7±2.0 mg/100 g). These indigenous leafy vegetables were also rich in antioxidants showing good DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity (17.43±1.673 to 1978.00±8.75 mg ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC)/100 g), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) (981.19±2.11to 5200.85±8.31 mg AEAC/100 g) and total phenol content (0.40±0.016 to 6.92±0.02 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g). Moreover, anti-nutritional compounds (oxalate, nitrate and tannins) in most of these indigenous leafy vegetables were found lower as compared to other commonly consumed leafy vegetables. Thus including these nutrients rich traditional leafy vegetables in our daily diet can be an excellent food-based approach for ensuring nutritional security.</p> Anuradha Srivastava Rabi Sankar Pan Sushanta Kumar Naik Arun Kumar Singh Bhagwati Prasad Bhatt Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 336 345 10.56042/ijtk.v23i4.10322 Traditional knowledge of agriculture in Bengali folk songs <p>India is a rich repository of cultural heritage and diversity, with a significant portion consisting of traditional folk songs. West Bengal has no exception and has got a wide variety of folk songs in every district of the state. This research has been conducted to identify the folk song relevant to agriculture and farmer’s livelihood by understanding the contents with respect to themes. Emphasis has been rendered to explore the agricultural messages implied in the folk songs and to delve into any possibility to employ the folk songs as a tool for transfer of agricultural technologies. The research has been conducted by creating a compendium of the Bengali folk songs related to agriculture with experts’ assistance. These songs were analyzed by applying content analysis and represented in tabular forms depicting knowledge items with quantification. Since folk songs relevant to agriculture were considered, most of the songs belonged to the category of Karmasangeet (work song), followed by Tusu, Bhadu, Mahipal, Mecheni and others. Some of the songs carry traditional agricultural knowledge on cropping sequence, intercultural operation, plant protection, planting times, etc. Folk songs, whose primary idea was born to express the inner state of mind and break the monotony, can also be used for transforming the tacit knowledge into explicit one. Agricultural Extension, as a discipline, can very well employ the traditional folk media to impregnate the remotest of Indian villages with new technologies keeping intact the entertainment component.</p> Shehanaz Alam Debabrata Basu Shuvam Gorai Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 346 352 10.56042/ijtk.v23i4.10324 Reversal of restraint stress caused dendritic atropy in rats by Nardostachys jatamansi <p>Hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of brain have distinct role in encoding and retrieval of memories. Uncontrollable stress may influence the structural alterations of limbic brain regions and atropy of neurons mainly in the regions like the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. <em>Nardostachys jatamansi </em>(D. Don) DC (NJE) is a perennial herb and is known for its anti-Parkinson’s, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, hypotensive and anti-diabetic activities. Even though, it is an effective therapeutic intervention for memory impairment but, its effect on the neurons of the hippocampus is not clear. In this context, the effect of NJE on chronic restraint stress induced dendritic atropy in rats was studied. Male Wistar rats underwent 21 days of restraint stress in a close fitting rodent restrainer. In combined treatment groups rats were treated with alcoholic extract of NJE at dosage of 200 mg/kg bw for 21 days along with chronic restraint stress. The dendritic morphology of neurons was studied in Golgi-impregnated sections. Stress produced dendritic atropy significantly increased the dendritic branching and intersections in experimental rats. Interestingly, treatment of stressed rats with NJE extract resulted in the reversal of stress induced the dendritic atrophy. These results demonstrate that atrophy of dendritic neurons caused by chronic restraint stress may be responsible for learning and memory impairment. Co-treatment of rats with NJE showed enhancement in the dendritic branching in the hippocampus. Furthermore, NJE treatment significantly increased superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity in frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum regions of brain. Thus, our findings suggest that NJE is a potential neuroprotector, which might be beneficial in the treatment of stress induced memory impairment.</p> Gloria Karkada S Shruthi K Bhasker Shenoy Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 353 361 10.56042/ijtk.v23i4.10328 Utilization of sweet potato solids for value-addition to chocolate ice cream <p>Sweet potato is rich in carotenoids and fiber and confers sweetness to the product in which it is utilized. The aim of the research was to utilize sweet potato in the form of ‘osmo-vac’ dehydrated powder in medium-fat (6.0% fat) ‘chocolate ice cream’ for value-addition. Use of sweet potato powder (SPP) at 2.0 to 4.0% level did not affect the sensory quality of chocolate ice cream appreciably. SPP when used at 4.0% level in ‘medium-fat’ chocolate ice cream led to enrichment of the ice cream with b-carotene and fiber; it could replace 40.0% of milk fat and 10.0% of sugar in ice cream. Ice cream containing 4.0% SPP tended to have markedly higher total carbohydrates and total solids content as compared to control ‘medium-fat’ ice cream. Presence of SPP in ice cream led to slight impairment in its overrun. The ‘medium-fat’ chocolate ice cream prepared utilizing 4.0% SPP had sensory scores similar to those of ‘full-fat’ (10.0% fat) control ice cream. Ice cream is an ideal medium for utilizing sweet potato solids contributing to value-addition to the frozen delicacy.</p> Atanu Jana Panchal Chirag H Mehta Bhavbhuti M Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 362 371 10.56042/ijtk.v23i4.10329 On-farm conservation of traditional mango varieties by custodian farmers in Uttar Pradesh <p>Farmers in Uttar Pradesh play a crucial role as guardians of the state's diverse mango heritage, actively contributing to the evolution and on-farm conservation of numerous varieties. This extensive study across 23 key mango-growing districts in Uttar Pradesh sought to identify custodian farmers employing Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) to conserve a minimum of ten mango varieties within their orchards. District-wise analysis unveiled a concentration of custodian farmers, with Lucknow district standing out at 31.68%, showcasing their dedication to maintaining the highest number of traditional varieties. Across districts, substantial variations were noted in fruit maturity, suitability, color (peel and pulp), size, quality, and fiber content. Saharanpur district emerged as a notable area where custodian farmers dedicated significant orchard space to mango cultivation. The discovery of a 250-year-old orchard in Bulandshahr district adds a historical dimension to the custodian farmers' commitment. Malihabad nurseries in Lucknow took center stage as primary sources for planting materials of traditional varieties, highlighting their pivotal role in supporting on-farm conservation efforts. This emphasizes the synergy between custodian farmers and local nurseries, both rooted in ITK practices. The study identified a strong correlation (r=0.997), emphasizing that the number of traditional varieties significantly contributes to on-farm conservation, underscoring the importance of preserving mango diversity. This research illuminates the proactive measures taken by Uttar Pradesh farmers, providing insights with potential implications for sustainable agriculture and biodiversity conservation.</p> Shailendra Rajan Pranav Kumar Mishra Aditya Kumar Parul Sagar Vaibhav Srivastav Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 372 380 10.56042/ijtk.v23i4.10330 Caesalpinia bonducella seeds restore the ovarian functions in mifepristone-induced PCOS rats acting through insulin –insulin-like growth factors <p>The prime complications namely hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia, observed in PCOS condition is due to the abnormal signalling pathways triggered by insulin as well as insulin-like growth factor family of genes and proteins. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the down regulating effect of ethanolic seed extract of <em>Caesalpinia bonducella </em>(ESECB) on the genes like IGF-1, IGF-2 and PTEN and proteins IRS1 and IRS2 in mifepristone induced PCOS rats. The level expression pattern of genes were studied using <em>in vivo</em> methods and the <em>in silico</em> method is used to study the proteins. Mifepristone induced PCOS rats were treated with 200 mg and 400 mg/kg b.w. p.o of ESECB extract for 28 days. The ovaries were collected for gene expression study using semi quantitative real time PCR analysis. Molecular docking analysis was performed from the GC-MS phyto-constituents for a antagonistic ligand which can halt the reactions of IRS1 and IRS2 proteins. The fold change of the mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-2 and PTEN genes were found to be 1.4, 0.34 and 0.36 respectively in the mifepristone induced PCOS rat ovaries. ESECB treatment decreased the fold change to 0.44, 0.13 and 0, 20 respectively. In docking studies, eight ligands namely, dioxan, propyl acetate, acetic anhydride, methyl butenoic acid, methyl isopropyl carbonate, glycerine, diethanolamine and 2,2, dimethyl propanoic anhydride inhibted the IRS1 and IRS2 proteins by interacting with their amino acid residues. It can be concluded that ESECB extract can be used as a potential drug for the treatment of PCOS as it acts at the molecular level to correct the complications of this disease.</p> Meera Murugesan Rajeswary Hari P Muralidharan Priya Durairaj Karthikeyan Sekar Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 381 390 10.56042/ijtk.v23i4.10331 Food manifested communication of traditional knowledge among tribal women in Tamil Nadu <p>Every culture has its own traditional food practice. In the recent past, the traditional food practices and the transfer of knowledge have been in transition. A study was conducted among women tribes in <em>Kolli Hills, Pachamalai Hills</em> and <em>Pechiparai</em> in Tamilnadu to assess the Traditional Food Knowledge (TFK) of tribal women and their transmission through generations. A total number of 66 women from these three tribal and hill areas were selected randomly for this study. This study explores unique traditional food knowledge, practices and their present day adaptations and how they had used their traditional food for communicating their indigenous knowledge. A self-structured questionnaire, FGD and in-depth interviews were conducted to understand the tribe’s perception towards traditional food and communication. The results revealed that food practices in three different places were not the same and not consistent in Pachamalai. Impacts of modern food habits among the tribes were also seen in the results.</p> Nagarathinam S Kinkini D M Paramanantham N Prasanth R S Ravuther Meera Ravuther A Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 391 397 10.56042/ijtk.v23i4.10332 Editorial Board April-2024 Charu Lata Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 299 302 Content April-2024 Charu Lata Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 303 304 Brief report-Ashwgandha Charu Lata Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 398 399 Author Index April-2024 Charu Lata Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 400 400 Subject Index April-2024 Charu Lata Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK) 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 23 4 401 402