Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics (IJPAP) <p style="text-align: justify;">Started in 1963, this journal publishes Original Research Contribution as full papers, notes and reviews on classical and quantum physics, relativity and gravitation; statistical physics and thermodynamics; specific instrumentation and techniques of general use in physics, elementary particles and fields, nuclear physics, atomic and molecular physics, fundamental area of phenomenology, optics, acoustics and fluid dynamics, plasmas and electric discharges, condensed matter-structural, mechanical and thermal properties, electronic, structure, electrical, magnetic and optical properties, cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology, geophysics, astrophysics and astronomy. It also includes latest findings in the subject under News Scan.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="style1"><span style="font-family: Verdana;">Impact Factor of IJPAP is 0.7 (JCR 2022).</span> </span></strong></p> en-US (Dr. Kanika Malik) (Digital Information Resources Division (For tecnical support only)) Wed, 03 Apr 2024 15:51:58 +0530 OJS 60 Recent Advancements in Li-ion Batteries Electrolytes: A Review <p>Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have emerged as important power sources in recent years, and their improved performance is accelerating the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) as viable alternatives to internal combustion engines. A focal point for the international community of materials scientists, computational physicists, and chemists is the exploration of innovative materials for LIBs, with an overarching emphasis on addressing concerns related to safety, durability, energy density (ED), and affordability during the developmental stages. The electrolyte, serving as a solvent containing conducting salt and additional substances, plays a critical role, while the incorporation of additives is explored to enhance security, performance, and recyclability. To meet the multifaceted demands of automotive and grid applications, batteries necessitate advancements in power, durability, safety, environmental sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. Overcoming challenges associated with current LIBs, primarily those crafted from flammable and volatile organic solvents, becomes imperative. Addressing issues such as large electrochemical windows (Ews), a broad working temperature range, appropriate safety measures, and optimal surface reactions on electrodes for controlled passivation without compromising low impedance are formidable tasks. This review aims to comprehensively diverse LIB electrolyte types, facilitating the development of enhanced electrolytes for high-performance LIBs. Furthermore, it advocates for the design and implementation of safer electrolytes in future LIB iterations. The exploration of electrolyte additives is also a subject of investigation. The conclusion underscores the imperative to consider cell longevity when devising electrolytes for applications requiring rapid charging.</p> Lamiaa Mohamed, Aliaa Abdelfattah, Ahmed Selim, Abd Elhamid Abd Elhamid, Y. Reda, S. El-Raghy, R. Abdel-Karim Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics (IJPAP) Wed, 03 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Revisiting Some Pismis Open Clusters Using Gaia Environmental Technology <p>In this study, we considered the collective members of Pismis’s clusters located at identical distances r(pc) and distributed around a mean absolute magnitude (M<sub>o</sub>) following a Gaussian distribution with dispersion . We computed the distances r<sub>c</sub>(pc) of these clusters by applying a distance equation designed to account for Malmquist bias. Our computed distances were in satisfactory agreement when compared to previous research findings.</p> <p>In the second part of our work, we delved extensively into the Pismis 3 cluster, which is rarely studied, aged, and among the most affluent. We conducted analyses on its dynamical tidal radius , crossing time , relaxation time , and angular velocity .</p> <p>A kinematic analysis of these open clusters was carried out, encompassing aspects such as their apex position using the AD chart method, velocity ellipsoid parameters (VEPs), and the longitude of the vertex revealing a minimal value, as anticipated when pointing exactly at the Galactic Center. Additionally, we explored their ages in relation to evolution, linking them to formation mechanisms, metallicity, and opacity.</p> Amjad A Al-Subaie, Amnah S Al-Johani Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics (IJPAP) Wed, 03 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Prediction of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations over an Urban Region using Different Satellite <p>The accurate estimation of ground-level particulate matter concentrations (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) is essential for assessing air quality and its impact on human health and the environment. This study focused on estimating PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations from January 2021 to June 2023 in the city of Lucknow, India. Various models, including Bivariate Linear Regression (LR), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) predicted PM<sub>2.5 </sub>concentrations at the station. Additionally, CALIPSO observations successfully demonstrated the vertical aerosol layer profile in the region. To improve accuracy, we incorporated Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data from both MODIS and VIIRS, along with meteorological parameters. The dataset was divided into two periods: 2017-2020 for estimation and January 2021-June 2023 for model training. Our findings revealed a positive correlation between model outputs, observed ground data, and meteorological parameters. For MODIS, LR, MLR, and ANN models had correlation coefficients (R) of 0.41, 0.57, and 0.66. Similarly, for VIIRS, the <br />R-values were 0.33, 0.55, and 0.64, indicating promising agreement between model predictions and actual PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations. These findings contribute to a better understanding of air quality dynamics and can support policymakers in implementing effective measures to mitigate the adverse effects of particulate matter pollution on public health and the environment. Data sets underwent three divisions: 80% for training, and 10% each for validation and testing. ANN displayed strong correlation coefficients (R) across datasets, achieving MODIS R-values of 0.74 and 0.73 for training and overall sets, and VIIRS R- values of 0.74 and 0.72. This study highlights the significant accuracy improvement in PM<sub>2.5 </sub>estimation by integrating meteorological, land use data, and satellite AOD. While LR and MLR methods yielded comparable outcomes, ANN emerged as a superior technique for long-term PM<sub>2.5</sub> estimation, holding promise for air quality monitoring and guideline adherence in diverse regions.</p> Ajay Kumar, Sumit Singh, Amarendra Singh, A K Srivastava, Virendra Pathak Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics (IJPAP) Wed, 03 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Diurnal Variation of Rain Drop Size Distribution over the Western Ghats of India <p>Joss-Waldvogel Disdrometer (JWD) measurements at the High-Altitude Cloud Physics Laboratory (HACPL: 17.56°N, 73.4°E, above 1373 m MSL), Mahabaleshwar were investigated for determining the diurnality of the drop size distribution (DSD) associated with the precipitation characteristics over the Western Ghats of India. The JWD data for the period from 2015 to 2019 were collected and examined during the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) season. The number concentration of rain droplets of various diameters is considerably varying with the rain rate (R) and type of precipitating cloud. With increasing the value of R, rain droplets having larger diameter concentration significantly increases, and the distribution tail moves towards the biggest droplets. The average value of reflectivity (Z), R, liquid water content (LWC), mass-weighted mean diameter (D<sub>m</sub>), and normalized intercept parameter (log<sub>10</sub>N<sub>w</sub>) was found to be higher for the heavy rainfall (R<sub>high</sub> ≥10 mm h<sup>-1</sup>) as compared to the low rainfall (R<sub>low</sub> &lt; 10 mm h<sup>-1</sup>) during the entire study period. The gamma distribution of DSD shows significant differences during the low and heavy precipitation on different time periods (<em>e.g</em>., 00-06, 06-12, 12-18, 18-23 LST). The number of rain events contributing to the total accumulated rain varies with time. The maximum number of rain events occurred during 12-18 LST, with 23.6 % rain events of low rainfall and 4.9% of heavy rainfall. The bimodality is observed in the diurnal variation of D<sub>m</sub>, R, and Z, with the largest peak recorded in the late afternoon hour (13-16 LST) and the second crest in the early morning hour (05 LST). At the same time, the log<sub>10</sub>N<sub>w</sub> value drops down, indicating the lowest concentration of rain droplets.</p> Amit Kumar, Atul Kumar Srivastava, K Chakravarty, M. K. Srivastava Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics (IJPAP) Wed, 03 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0530 Study on Thermal Transport and Flow Characterization of TiO2-SiO2 Mixture Slippery Nanoflow Under Energy Generation: Keller Box Simulation <p>An impactful rheological fluid model (Casson) has taken for study. The influence of nanoparticles mixture suspended in water based slippery radiative nanoflow around a porous cylinder has investigated in the presence of non-uniform energy generation or absorption. A suitable Casson rheological mathematical model has been developed as set of partial differential equations and transformed to system of ordinary differential equation under self-similarity transformations. Then, the final system has cracked numerically employing Keller box method, coded with MATLAB. The numerical solutions for Nusselt number, surface friction coefficient, momentum and energy profiles have portrayed and tabulated. Streamlines have drawn for analysing the amount of energy flow characterisation. <br />A three-way comparison has done based on number of nanoparticles added to the base flow. The study has revealed that among three different models of nanoflow (simple nanoflow, hybrid nanoflow, ternary nanoflow), hybrid nanoflow has shown the best heat transmission rate and momentum flow rate. In hybrid nanofluids, an increasing heat transfer rate and surface friction coefficient has noticed for enhancing energy generation parameter. Presence of nano-silica particles have enhanced the high reflectivity of radiation. The oxide nanoclusters and their composite synthesis helps in hydrophobic applications such as in powdering and coating processes. Titania and Silica combination has a superiority in removing heat outside from the surface and this quality has a very good application in cosmetics especially in the sunscreen lotions.</p> Vinothkumar B, Poornima Tamalapakula Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics (IJPAP) Wed, 03 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0530 BDCDTA-based Reconfigurable Frequency Selective Filter Structures for Medium Wave Communication and Biomedical Signal Processing Applications <p>Frequency-selective filters are usually required at the receiving end of a communication system to change the frequency range of a band-pass filter (BPF), which is used to extract the broadcast signal. In this study, we have designed such frequency-selective filters using a novel bulk-driven current differential transconductance amplifier (BDCDTA) as its fundamental building block. This BDCDTA is first used to create a biquad filter, and the designed filter is then reconfigured for frequency selection. The proposed frequency-selective filter structures have the capability of providing a constant gain based on the communication system's requirements. The suggested structures with CMOS 180 nm technology parameters are validated using PSPICE and the Cadence Virtuoso design environment. The theory is confirmed by pre and post-layout simulation. PVT corner and Monte-Carlo analysis demonstrate its applicability for a broad range of applications and provide a range for its use under various conditions. This design is suitable for low voltage and low power applications due to the bulk-driven transistors, and the suggested structures are designed especially for medium wave communication and biomedical signal processing.</p> Shailendra Bisariya, Neelofer Afzal Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics (IJPAP) Wed, 03 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0530