Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR <p style="text-align: justify;">Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) is a quarterly journal dedicated to exploring topics that confront educators, frontline workers in the fields, entrepreneurs, and ultimate users of the value-added products and their resources of both plants and animals. It publishes original research papers, reviews and short communications. IJNPR was formerly known as <em>Natural Products Radiance </em>(NPR), a bimonthly journal started in 2002.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><span class="style1"><span style="font-family: Verdana;">Impact Factor of IJNPR is 0.8 (JCR 2022).</span></span></strong></p> en-US Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 0976-0504 Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of novel south Indian plant Commelina forskaolii and its prospective anticancer activity in Hep G2 cells https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/4468 <p>Oxidative stress plays a part in the progression of cancer and various types of diseases by damaging the DNA. Generally, plants have high antioxidant potency so that they can reduce oxidative stress. Plants are found to be effective in treating various types of cancers because of their antioxidant property<em>. Commelina forskaolii </em>was used in the primitive ages to treat various diseases. This study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of the novel medicinal plant <em>C. forskaolii</em> followed by qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis. DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity were used to determine the antioxidant potential. The HepG2 cell line was used to study anticancer activity because it is a widely used cell line to study hepatotoxicity and hepatocellular carcinoma. The plant showed favourable antioxidant activity by scavenging various radicals such as DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radicals due to the presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins and terpenoids. Compared to the other plant extracts, the aqueous extract was found to be more potent in scavenging free radicals. The plant showed cytotoxicity against the HepG2 cell lines. The medicinal plant <em>C. forskaolii</em> contains a variety of phytochemicals and has high antioxidant potential. The plant has a capacity to inhibit the growth of liver cancer cells.</p> Manikandan Vani Raju Sasikala Sekar Meenakshi Kaniyur Chandrasekaran Meenakshi Sundari Rajendran Rathi Muthaiyan Ahalliya Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 65 72 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.4468 In silico Approaches of Azadirachta indica polypeptides exhibiting antimicrobial and anticancer potential https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/6562 <p>Medicinal plants are a vital source of natural bioactive peptides with broad therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications. These peptides are emerging as a viable alternative to traditional anticancer drugs and conventional antibiotics and potentially have the ability to reduce adverse side effects. This study concentrated on the anticancer and antibacterial efficacy of three bioactive low molecular weight polypeptides (11, 13, and 14 kDa) extracted from neem leaves. The analysis employed SDS-PAGE peptide profiling followed by sequence elucidation via MALDI TOF spectrometry. The three-dimensional (3D) structural models and the target proteins BCL-2 and Sortase A were constructed using Modeller9v7 software. The structural integrity of these models was assessed through molecular dynamics simulations and validated with the SAVES program. Molecular interactions between the peptides and cancer-associated protein BCL-2, alongside the bacterial enzyme Sortase A, were explored using molecular docking techniques facilitated by GOLD 3.0.1 software. The docking analysis revealed that the polypeptides, designated as polypeptide 1 (11kDa), polypeptide 2 (13kDa), polypeptide 3 (14 kDa), exhibited substantial binding affinity towards both BCL-2 and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> Sortase A, with binding energies of 26.96, 21.59, and 26.11 Kcal/mol, respectively. They also inhibited BCL-2 with binding energies of 27.00, 23.13, and 20.31 Kcal/mol, respectively. Remarkably, polypeptide 1(11 kDa) showed superior efficacy in both anticancer and antimicrobial activities, underscoring its potential as a candidate for developing novel therapeutic agents against anticancer and antimicrobial infections. The findings of this study highlight the promising role of plant-derived bioactive polypeptides in the treatment of cancer and microbial infections.</p> Mohammed Al Saiqali Krishnamurthy Nakuluri A. Venkateshwar Reddy Syed Safiullah Ghori Hemanth P. K. Sudhani Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 73 86 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.6562 Unveiling the pharmacological potential of Murraya koenigii against diabetic nephropathy https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/5247 <p>This study aimed to explore the efficacy of various extracts derived from <em>Murraya koenigii</em> (L.) in managing diabetic nephropathy (DN). DN was induced via intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), following a 15-minute pre-treatment with NAD (230 mg/kg), to develop diabetes. Evaluation of DN involved monitoring level of fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, serum insulin, albuminuria, serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, BUN, and alterations in lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL, and HDL). The oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract derived from <em>Murraya koenigii</em> to diabetic rats showed a notable improvement in renal dysfunction, as demonstrated by a marked decrease in inflammatory markers. Moreover, the treated groups experienced significant increase in body weight and notable reductions in fasting blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin levels. The administration of the extracts also effectively alleviated hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress, evidenced by a noteworthy rise in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, coupled with a considerable decrease in malondialdehyde (TBARS) levels. Additionally, the treatment led to the reversal of histopathological abnormalities observed in the kidneys, pancreas, and liver of diabetic rats. These findings indicate that treatment with <em>M. koenigii</em> extracts alleviated DN.</p> Randhir Singh Dahiya Shah Asma Farooq Sushma Devi Rohini Aggarwal Naresh Kumar Rangra Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 87 103 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.5247 Anticonvulsant activity of Rudraksha (Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume) bark against picrotoxin-induced convulsions in rats https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/1782 <p>Epilepsy is a neurological condition characterized by recurrent electrical activity in the brain's temporal lobe. It is a chronic disorder marked by an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, resulting in uncontrolled excitability. Current antiepileptic drugs often have limited effectiveness and pose challenges in patient management. Literature surveys indicate that various species of <em>Elaeocarpus</em> have demonstrated antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, antihypertensive, and antidepressant properties. Since Rudraksha (<em>Elaeocarpus angustifolius </em>Blume) is traditionally used to treat epilepsy and other brain-related disorders, the present study aimed to validate this claim by evaluating the anti-epileptic activity of the ethanolic bark extract of <em>E. angustifolius</em> on picrotoxin-induced convulsive rats. The extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg BW was administered to rats for 14 days, followed by a single dose of picrotoxin (7.5 mg/kg <em>i.p.</em>) on the 14th day, with diazepam (12 mg/kg <em>i.p.</em>) used as a reference drug. Various oxidative parameters such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), lactoperoxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and nitrate were estimated at the end of the treatment period. In the picrotoxin-induced convulsion model, treatment with ethanolic bark extract at 400 mg/kg caused a significant (<em>p </em>&lt;0.01) decrease in LPO levels and a significant (<em>p </em>&lt;0.001) increase in GABA levels in epileptic rats. The results concluded that the extract at a 400 mg/kg dose showed the most significant effect on picrotoxin-induced convulsions in rats.</p> Himani Dumka Veerma Ram Lata Bisht Anoop Singh Negi Ankit Kumar Dr. Deepak Kumar Semwal Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 104 112 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.1782 Antimicrobial and antihelminthic properties of different extracts of propolis https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/2829 <p>This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of honey bee product propolis against Gram-positive bacteria (<em>Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus </em><em>pneumoniae</em>) and Gram-negative bacteria (<em>Escherichia Coli</em>,<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica</em>) as well as against yeasts by disc diffusion assay and broth dilution method and also against amphistome by bioassay method under <em>in vitro</em> conditions. For this, ethanolic, methanolic and water extracts of propolis were prepared and tested for antimicrobial and antihelminthic activity. Ampicillin (antibacterial), Amphotericin B (antifungal) and Albendazole (anti-helminthic) were used as positive controls. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined by reading inhibition zone diameters (mm) after 24 hours of incubation at 37°C for bacteria and 28°C for fungi and broth dilution methods. Ethanolic extract of propolis was found to be most effective against antimicrobial properties. Results also demonstrated that propolis was more effective towards Gram-positive bacteria. Positive controls showed an efficient action against all the organisms used in present studies, but propolis was not found to be effective against amphistome.</p> Dr. Anita Rana Neelima R Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 113 121 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.2829 Phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis of Skimmia laureola Decne. leaves from the Kumaon Region of Uttarakhand, India https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/6952 <p><em>Skimmia laureola </em>(DC.) Decne. is one of the most important traditional medicinal plants in the Rutaceae family, found in the Western and Eastern Himalayan regions. Whole plants are well-known for their ethnobotanical and medical uses. Looking at its traditional medicinal uses, the present study aimed to determine the phytochemicals through preliminary phytochemical screening and to profile the bioactive compounds in the different solvent extracts of <em>S. laureola</em> using the GC-MS technique. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids and terpenoids in all three extracts. The GC-MS analysis identified various phytoconstituents with varying concentrations and molecular masses in each extract. Methanol extract revealed 57 compounds, ethyl acetate extract showed 73 compounds and 53 compounds were obtained from n-hexane extract. The predominant compounds were dictamnine (19.72%), methoxsalen (11.56%) in methanol extract, dictamnine (16.37%), cycloeucalenol acetate (15.27%) in ethyl acetate extract and tetracontane (19.35%), cycloeucalenol acetate (16.16%) in n-hexane extract. Some constituents such as Cycloeucalenol acetate and 13,27-Cycloursan-3-one identified as triterpenoid compounds were observed and had not been previously reported. This suggests the potential of this plant as a cost-effective source of dictamnine and methoxsalen, which are already known for their therapeutic properties. Further detailed investigations are needed to elucidate the therapeutic effects of these phytochemical constituents.</p> Jyoti Darmwal Prof. Pushpa Joshi Vandana Koshyari Neelam Rawat Shubham Kathuria Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 122 134 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.6952 Isolation and quantification of phytosterols in fresh and processed shoots of an edible bamboo Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss using GC-MS https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/6711 <p>Bamboo shoot is considered a palatable delicacy in Southeast Asia and Northeastern India and is traditionally consumed in fresh, boiled, soaked and fermented forms. Despite having high nutritious value, bamboo shoot is a minimally explored food resource, particularly for bioactive compounds. The present study was conducted to explore the phytosterols in shoots of <em>Bambusa bambos </em>(L.) Voss and how they were affected by processing techniques such as boiling, soaking and fermentation. The total phytosterol content in fresh shoots was 198.69 mg/100g in terms of dry weight. Lipid extraction, followed by isolation of sterol fraction and examination through GC-MS, revealed the presence of three major free phytosterols with the highest content of β-sitosterol followed by campesterol and stigmasterol. All the processing techniques lead to the enhancement of phytosterol content for each of the free sterols and, in totality, where fermentation was most effective, bringing about a better constitution of phytosterols, which can provide many health functions. Thus, bamboo shoots could be used as a healthy food commodity in fresh as well as processed form, and its extracted sterols could be fortified in various supplements, drugs and health care products.</p> Natasha Saini Chongtham Nirmala Madho Singh Bisht Copyright (c) 2023 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 135 145 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.6711 Phytopharmacognostic profiling of Prunus cerasoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don, heartwood https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/4232 <p>Use of <em>Prunus cerasoids </em>Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don is mentioned in traditional texts as <em>padmak</em> with some of its medicinal values. Seeing the classical significance of the plant, the study was undertaken to develop a pharmacognostic and phytochemical blueprint of <em>Prunus cerasoids</em> heartwood. The primary goal of this study was to detect the bioactive flavonoids, like biochanin A, genistein and sakuranetin, in heartwood. Authenticated plant materials were subjected to pharmacognostical, physicochemical and HPTLC fingerprinting. Qualitative analysis in detecting phytocompounds in the extracts of varied solvent polarity was performed using LC-MS/MS orbitrap. The extraction efficiency was highest in polar organic solvent methanol, and LC-MS/MS ascertained the same. The significant outcome of this study was the extractability of the solvents in bringing down the active phytochemicals differently, and methanol was found to be the best-suited solvent. Maximum numbers and the major phytocompounds available were apigetrin, astilbin, betaine, biochanin a, caprolactum, catechin, choline, coumarin, eriodictyol, ethylmalonic acid, formononetin, genistein, glycitein, hematoxylin, naringenin, phloretin, pipecolic acid, prunin, quercetin, rutin, sakuranetin, taxifolin, and trifolin. The data set generated here had multi-faceted contributions, especially in phytopharmaceuticals. This multidimensional profile of the plant heartwood may serve as documentary evidence in preparing a genuine monograph.</p> Kalyan Hazra Deepak Kumar Achintya Mitra Sreya Dutta Shuvadip Sarkar Gajji Babu Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 146 155 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.4232 Economic valuation of wetland products and services: A case study of Sone Beel, India https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/4483 <p>Wetlands provide the world's most productive products and services (PAS) for economic purposes. Wetlands are important for fishing, agriculture, biodiversity, and recreational activities. The present paper attempts to estimate the total economic value of the use and nonuse values of the Sone Beel, the largest wetland of Assam. The fishing communities of the Sone Beel area have been associated with the wetland for generations, and they depend on the wetland for their livelihood. We have adopted the market price method, travel cost method, and contingent valuation method for the economic valuation of Sone Beel. The total economic value (TEV) of Sone Beel is estimated as Rs 561,088,074 (USD 6,769,140.46) per annum, with fishing as the main contributor, whose value is estimated at around 84.53 per cent of the TEV of the wetland, followed by duck rearing, water transport, tourism, paddy cultivation, biodiversity conservation, and future use.</p> Kanchan Baran Singha N. B. Singh Konthoujam Gyanendra Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 156 177 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.4483 Kinetic modelling and accelerated oxidation studies of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties for their shelf stability https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/6901 <p>The present investigation aims to evaluate the oxidative stability of different high oleic and conventional groundnut varieties of Indian origin. A total of 6 groundnut varieties, including two high oleic varieties (Girnar-4 and Girnar-5) and four conventional varieties (GJG-22, GIG-HPS-1, GJG-31, KL-9), were analysed for fatty acid profiles, oxidative stability (accelerated oxidation), total phenols, antioxidant activities and prediction of their shelf life. Among the studied varieties, Girnar-4 and Girnar-5 had higher Oleic/Linoleic (O/L) ratios <em>viz.</em> 20 and 12, respectively. The induction times (IT) were significantly (<em>P </em>&lt;0.05) reduced with the increase in temperatures (120, 130, and 140°C). Higher induction times were observed in Girnar-4 and Girnar-5; the lowest were in GJG-31. The highest activation energy (E<sub>a</sub>) of 107.05±0.15 kJ/mol was observed in Girnar-4. In addition, it was also found to have the longest predicted shelf life of 321.5±22 days at 37°C. Higher total phenols content and antioxidant activity were observed in Girnar-5. In conclusion, the high oleic varieties (Girnar-4 &amp; Girnar-5) have shown greater oxidative stability, good phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. The higher oxidation resistance potentiality of these high oleic groundnut varieties ought to help in the development of value-added products with better stability.</p> Sai Kiran Chikkam Dadasaheb Wadikar Dev Kumar Yadav Atul Kumar Srihari P S Anil Dutt Semwal Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 178 187 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.6901 A review on bioprospecting of actinomycetes isolated from marine soil samples of India concerning their antimicrobial secondary metabolites https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/7313 <p>Sixty-three years of research on terrestrial actinomycetes and forty-three years on marine actinomycetes in India yielded several novel actinomycetes species. Those actinomycetes were screened for their biological activities using culture filtrate/ crude solvent extracts. There are few reports on purifying and identifying secondary metabolites and exploring their biological activities. Actinomycetes are known for producing a diverse group of secondary metabolites with multiple biological activities. Omics technology has been currently used for rapid screening of actinomycetes genera to identify novel stains and their biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). Only a few reports on using omics technology to explore actinomycetes' genera for novelty, their BGCs, secondary metabolites, and their biological activities in India have been available. Bioactivity-guided extraction, purification, and identification of secondary metabolites and scalable production of the bioactive compounds in the laboratory are time-consuming. Using omics technology to explore the actinomycetes isolated from several niches, including deep-sea sediments, would reduce the time required for screening and identification of novel BCGs and their metabolites. The growing microbial drug resistance to the existing antibiotics has increased the demand for newer antibiotics worldwide. This warranted the researchers to explore actinomycetes genera for novel antibiotics, bioactive compounds, and new chemical entities. Isolation of actinomycetes from unexplored and underexplored regions, screening followed by whole genome sequencing, annotation and identification of BGCs and their selective expression would help us produce a scalable quantity of novel bioactive compounds for biomedical applications.</p> Krishnan Kannabiran Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 13 20 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.7313 A review of the chemical composition, modification, and biomedical application of Ricinus communis https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/155 <p>According to research, the use of fuels based on plant oil is replacing fuels based on petroleum as we move towards renewable resources. In comparison to fossil fuels, natural oils like castor oil offer competitive physicochemical properties. Natural oils are renewable, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly, which has sparked much research interest in their use. Vegetable oils are much more in demand for domestic and industrial uses due to the growing global population. Vegetable oils derived from plants have been noted as having a high nutritional value. Castor plant seeds are among those with high oil content because of their high unsaturated fatty acid content and bioactive components. Its fatty acid composition primarily consists of ricinoleic acid, with a small amount of stearic, palmitic, and also oleic acids. Because ricinoleic acid in castor oil is distinct from all other oils (vegetable), it is preferred for an ample range of applications. Castor oil contains a variety of minor biological substances, such as phytosterol, tocotrienol, tocopherol, phenolic components, phospholipids, and carotenoids. Since bio-oils are versatile, they may be utilized in various sectors, including electronics, food, paper and agriculture. Castor oil may be utilized in various grades and has many derivatives. For various applications, bio-binders are regarded as the material with the most potential. Therefore, this study summarises the physical and chemical characteristics of castor oil, its composition, the process used to create different castor oil derivatives and its uses.</p> Poonam Talwan Darsh Gautam Rishi Kumar Savita Sharma Sahil Dhiman Rahul Gill Aparna Thakur Deexa Sharma Saksham Sharma Akhil Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 21 42 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.155 Floral pigments and its cytotoxic activity: An update https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/7361 <p>In India, approximately 80,000 tonnes of flower waste are produced every year. The increase in floral waste has driven attention to utilise it in various fields. Flowers, with their intricate properties, are applicable in the dye, paper, incense, perfumery, and pharmaceutical industries. It can also be used for vermicomposting. The pigments extracted from temple flowers are known to show antibacterial and antifungal activity and are finding their application as anti-cancerous agents. This paper comprises an overview of the major floral pigments such as carotenoid, flavonoids and xanthophyll, which are found in temple flowers and their extraction procedures using conventional methods such as agitation, centrifugation, Soxhlet extraction and non-conventional methods such as enzymatic extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pressurised liquid extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction. This is followed by a brief discussion of the cytotoxic effect <em>in vitro</em> using cell lines such as MCF-7, HeLa, and DU145.</p> Jeffrina Nancy John Rhea Ana Mascarenhas Vijayalakshmi Gangadhara Asha Abraham Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 43 53 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.7361 A review on potato milk: A possible alternative for consumers allergic to cow milk proteins https://or.niscpr.res.in/index.php/IJNPR/article/view/8045 <p>Research and development in science and innovation have changed consumer awareness of conventional food sources to functional foods that provide more nutrition and health. On the other hand, there is an emerging no for cow milk due to environmental and ethical considerations. Plant-based milk alternatives emerged as a rising trend, serving as an inexpensive alternative to a poor economic group of developing countries and in places where cow’s milk supply is insufficient. A functional food should promote cognitive response, an improved immune system, and general well-being. Though there are several plant-based milk substitutes, using vegetables to produce a novel milk substitute still needs to be considered. Hence, this review aims to incorporate potatoes to produce a milk-like substitute due to their high nutritious content, bioavailability, and environmental sustainability. Potatoes are a better source of protein, vitamins, and minerals than rice, wheat, sorghum, legumes, and corn, with a high number of antioxidants and phytochemicals. With consumers becoming increasingly aware of the association of diet, nutrition, and health, potatoes have the potential to become an important dietary source of bioactive ingredients, i.e., functional food.</p> Anitha S Manivannan A Copyright (c) 2024 Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)] 2024-04-26 2024-04-26 15 1 54 64 10.56042/ijnpr.v15i1.8045